Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Team), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto ornamental como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por 2 espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:one
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A textual content, in english, from Wikipedia, the free of charge encyclopedia:
For other uses, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering crops in the mallow spouse and children, Malvaceae. It is fairly large, that contains quite a few hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical locations all through the planet. Member species are normally observed for their showy bouquets and are usually identified only as hibiscus, or considerably less extensively identified as rose mallow. The genus incorporates both yearly and perennial herbaceous crops, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic title is derived from the Greek word ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the title Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, normally with a toothed or lobed margin. The bouquets are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or additional petals, shade from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower shade in sure species, this sort of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[five] The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, that contains quite a few seeds in each and every lobe, which are produced when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of red and white colours. It is an example of entire bouquets.
Takes advantage of:
Symbolism and society
Hibiscus species stand for nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the nationwide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the nationwide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the nationwide flower of Haiti. The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and seems often in depictions of her in the artwork of Bengal, India, normally with the goddess and the flower merging in form. The hibiscus is employed as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (local title for hibiscus) is employed by youngsters as component of a bubble-building pastime. The bouquets and leaves are crushed until finally the sticky juices arrive out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and employed as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is historically worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian ladies. If the flower is worn guiding the still left ear, the female is married or in a connection. If the flower is worn on the proper, she is one or overtly obtainable for a connection. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s condition flower.
Nigerian creator Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her to start with novel Purple Hibiscus right after the delicate flower.
The bark of the hibiscus has sturdy bast fibres that can be acquired by letting the stripped bark established in the sea to allow the natural substance rot absent.
A lot of species are grown for their showy bouquets or employed as landscape shrubs, and are employed to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
One species of Hibiscus, identified as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is thoroughly employed in paper-building.
Primary post: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus bouquets is identified by numerous names in numerous international locations around the planet and is served both incredibly hot and cold. The beverage is well identified for its shade, tanginess and taste.
It is identified as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower getting flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a typical title for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and numerous other islands in the Caribbean, the consume is identified as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be bewildered with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the typical title sorrel). In Ghana, the consume is identified as soobolo in just one of the local languages.
Roselle is generally boiled in an enamel-coated large inventory pot as most West Indians think the steel from aluminum, steel or copper pots will ruin the natural minerals and vitamins.[quotation needed]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by to start with steeping the petals in incredibly hot h2o until finally the colours are leached from the petals, then including lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a brilliant red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold h2o/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[quotation needed] Sudan and the Arab planet, hibiscus tea is identified as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as both a incredibly hot and a cold consume.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is normally a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and employed as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is employed as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is observed in Visayas Philippines getting a souring component for virtually all local greens and menus. Regarded as Labog in the Visayan place, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a incredibly excellent component in cooking native rooster soup. Specified species of hibiscus are also starting to be employed additional extensively as a natural resource of meals coloring (E163),[quotation needed] and alternative of Red #3 / E127.
Hibiscus species are employed as meals crops by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, such as Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
Well being gains
The tea is preferred as a natural diuretic it has vitamin C and minerals, and is employed historically as a mild medicine.
A 2008 USDA review displays consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood strain in a team of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive older people. Three cups of tea everyday resulted in an average fall of eight.one mmHg in their systolic blood strain, in contrast to a one.3 mmHg fall in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Research participants with increased blood strain readings (129 or previously mentioned) experienced a greater response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood strain went down by 13.2 mmHg. These information support the strategy that consuming hibiscus tea in an total easily incorporated into the diet regime could play a job in controlling blood strain, whilst additional study is required.
Experiments have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive consequences of H. sabdariffa in both humans and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive consequences of H. sabdariffa is thanks to its angiotensin-changing enzyme inhibiting action. In a randomized, controlled clinical trial involving 39 individuals with mild to reasonable hypertension, Captopril was in contrast to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive consequences. Topics taking an extract of H.sabdariffa, consumed everyday in advance of breakfast for 4 weeks, located reduction in blood strain very similar to Captopril. One more randomized, placebo clinical trial involving fifty four review participants with reasonable hypertension demonstrated a reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood strain. Even so on discontinuation of treatment method, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were being subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a range of clinical uses in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their study indicates some likely in cosmetic skin treatment for example, an extract from the bouquets of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been proven to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian conventional procedure of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, primarily white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is viewed as to have medicinal homes. The roots are employed to make different concoctions believed to remedy illnesses this sort of as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair treatment method, the bouquets are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and bouquets are floor into a great paste with a small h2o, and the ensuing lathery paste is employed as a shampoo plus conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also has bioflavonoids, which are believed to assistance protect against an improve in LDL cholesterol, which can improve the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A previous animal review demonstrated the consequences of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and small-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a large cholesterol diet regime (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract in contrast to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a helpful effect. Also, the H. sabdariffa seed is abundant in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant kinds of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol lowering consequences.
Safeguards and Contraindications:
Pregnancy and Lactation
While the system is not well comprehended, previous animal studies have demonstrated both an inhibitory effect of H. sabdariffa on muscle mass tone and the anti-fertility consequences of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been proven to encourage contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive consequences in the form of estrogen action in rats. These results have not been observed in humans. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also believed to have emmenagogue consequences which can encourage menstruation and, in some females, lead to an abortion. Because of to the documented adverse consequences in animal studies and the documented pharmacological homes, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advisable for use for the duration of being pregnant. Furthermore, they are not advisable whilst breastfeeding thanks to the deficiency of dependable details on its protection and use.
No contraindications have been discovered.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In wholesome human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was located to reduce the excretion of diclofenac on co-administration. Furthermore, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a typical Sudanese beverage, was located to reduce chloroquine bioavailability. Even so, no statistically important changes were being observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) consume. Even further studies are needed to exhibit clinical importance.
In temperate zones, most likely the most usually grown ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the typical yard hibiscus, also identified in some spots as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be bewildered with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also named “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical spots, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its numerous showy hybrids, is the most preferred hibiscus.
Many hundred species are identified, such as:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian red hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Facial area (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The us, South The us, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and japanese North The us)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North The us)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Confederate Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Type species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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